The City of Walterboro Municipal Government was established on December 20, 1826. The operation of City Government remained largely unchanged until 1976 when the City adopted the Council/Manager form of government under which the City continues to operate today.

The City of Walterboro is governed by a mayor and six council members elected at-large by the registered voters of the city. Council members are elected to staggered four-year terms and are elected under the nonpartisan election method.